2021

Petrochemical Industry

The petrochemical industry is an essential part of the chemical industry that produces organic intermediate products. Multiple processes are required to convert petrochemicals to daily use products like refinery products, natural gas, plastic, rubber, and fiber raw-materials, which buyers of these products are unaware of. 

We use petrochemical products in our everyday lives and activities starting from household items, electricals, medicinal drugs, and even used in specific departments like renewable energy and crime detection. The application of petrochemical products in the current lifestyle encouraged the growth of refineries and mining plants and created multiple jobs in the related fields. Thus it became an unavoidable stream that powers multiple economies holding the world.

Different Types of Petrochemicals

Petrochemicals are the chemical outcomes of petroleum and natural gas categorized into two as Olefins and Aromatics. Natural gas and crude oil get refined and processed to form naphtha, ethane, propane, liquified petroleum gas(LPG), and methane. Before reaching their way into the buyer, petrochemicals go through several processes like steam cracking, catalytic reforming, and propane dehydrogenation at the first phase. Then they are further converted into several varieties of materials with different characteristics that can prove useful in multiple and complex situations.

Adhesives, agrichemicals, cleaning materials, cosmetic additives, elastomers, food additives, and lubricants come under a different category called specialty chemicals. These industrially used chemicals meant for specific purposes don't belong to the oil and gas product category. 

Among the specialty chemicals used for specific tasks, some are organic, and others are not. Organic chemicals like acyclic hydrocarbons, cyclic alcohols, phenols, ethers, ketone peroxides, carboxylic acids, and sugars are substances with one or more carbon atoms.

Trading Petrochemicals

Refineries, oil mines, and natural gas resources usually get built around petrochemical industries for the advantage of transporting raw materials feasibly. States and countries like Louisiana, Texas, Saudi Arabia, India, China, and Japan have made infrastructural developments to facilitate the potential growth of petrochemical industries. China is considered the world's largest producer of chemicals and aims to achieve self-sufficiency in petrochemicals. Most of the business in the industry is related to different types of oil products. But some are into petrochemicals, which have specific applications.

Transportation difficulties are the reason why petrochemical products get manufactured in fewer quantities. Companies depend on rail and tanker services for transportation purposes because building pipelines is not economically viable. Depending on the derivative market, companies trade in future contracts to escape exposure against feedstock prices, to lock prices. In trading platforms, options contacts are available.

Opportunities in the Petrochemical Industry

Significant changes happened in the domestic petrochemical industry with the introduction of economic reforms in 1991. Through delicensing and deregulation, market forces were able to predict investment and growth. The main building block for petrochemicals, Ethylene, reflected its effects on the fluctuations in GDP. Especially polymer consumption as generic plastic products created notable outcomes on the GDP of a country. An increase in production and consumption of these products gave a well predictable rise in the GDP. 

Future of the Petrochemical Industry

The growth in production and demand for petrochemicals encouraged the world to dream big. The petrochemical sector was able to develop value-added/quality products at globally competitive prices. Companies realized that it's possible to design innovative new products with multiple applications. These products can contribute to sustainable development plans using environment-friendly processes and technologies in the future.

Issues related to basic necessities such as food, water, shelter, clothing, and health gets addressed efficiently using petrochemical products. Newly developed materials will play a relevant part in infrastructure, information, communication, and entertainment.

The plastic industry is penetrating every other field with its specific applications.

  • Modern agriculture through plasticulture

  • Foods and eatables packing

  • In the automobile sector and consumer durables

  • Economic plastic constructions 

  • Into telecommunications and IT services.

It provides technical textile solutions producing performance fibers and popular synthetic fibers like Synthetic, Acrylic, and yarn. The substantial potential for growth in this field opens up infinite opportunities.

The Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET) should promote Research and Development to help Polymer and Plastics industry. Human Resource Planning and Development should work together on the potential of this industry. It will help the future goals of the industry to come true.